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Ar-05 - canon gribeauval, 6 livres, france

AR-05 - Canon Gribeauval, 6 livres, France

ref. EK Castings AR-05

EK Castings - AR 05 - Canon Gribeauval, 6 livres, France, 1812
In December 1801, the First Consul of the French Republic Napoleon Bonaparte appointed a commission of higher artillery officers, which was to develop a new artillery system. Since 1774, the basis of the French field artillery was the 4 and 8 pound guns of the Griboval system. Practical experience of revolutionary wars has shown that 4-pound guns are too light, and 8-pound guns are excessively heavy, especially for equestrian artillery. The initiator of the change in the Gribovala system, General Marmont, who headed the commission in 1802, proposed the introduction of a single 6-pound caliber for field artillery. "I suggested replacing the caliber of 8 pounds and 4 pounds with a single 6-pound," wrote Marmont. "The guns of this caliber produce an action close to eight pound and at the same time far exceed the four pounders." A single caliber also facilitated the supply of ammunition. Important was the fact that the 6-pounder guns were the basis of the field artillery of the armies of countries - the opponents of France - Austria, Prussia and Russia.
The result of the work of the commission, under the chairmanship of the artillery inspector general d'Abowil, was the new artillery system proposed on May 2, 1803, called the "System of XI" (Systeme XI). (According to the revolutionary calendar that was in effect at the time in France, the 12th floreal of the 11th year of the republic corresponded to May 2, 1803. The revolutionary calendar was abolished by Napoleon on September 22, 1805).
The new nomenclature of French artillery was limited to guns having a barrel bore corresponding to the caliber of 6, 12 and 24 pounds. According to Marmont, the new main guns of field artillery - 6-pounder cannons, became a caliber slightly larger than the corresponding 6-f guns of other European countries. This allowed the French to use captured ammunition. At the same time, the French charges could not be used by the enemy. The XI system suggested some simplification and simplification of the guns while optimizing their firepower, as well as the introduction of an improved transport mate- rial.
The new system XI in the artillery of France had both supporters and opponents. The main argument of the opponents was: significant material costs to replace the existing Griboval system, which was still considered quite perfect. There were 2,700 4 and 8-pound guns of the Griboval system and about 3 million cannonballs cast for them. To replace the old guns and to approve the new XI system, it was required to conduct the necessary practical tests and several years of peaceful life, but the continuous wars waged by France from 1803 until the end of the Empire prevented the complete implementation of the reform begun. As a result, the French army had to use the old and new material artillery pieces simultaneously. Instead of a single caliber, to the 4- and 8-pound guns and the fronts of the Griboval, 6-pounder guns and a whole series of new wagons and forks were added. In order to somehow solve the problem, almost all the guns of the Griboval system were sent for combat operations to Spain, and the German and Russian theater of military operations sent basically new implements of the XI system - 6-pounder guns (as well as 12-f guns and 24-f howitzers).
The French 6-pounder gun was recognized as the main and most successful weapon of the new system of the XI year. It was cast in fairly large quantities from 1803 to 1808. The bronze barrel of the gun weighing 380 kg had a caliber of 96 mm and was devoid of decorative reinforcing friezes and belts. On the official part of the trunk, the monogram "N" was engraved, framed by oak and laurel branches under the imperial crown. On the muzzle, the cannon's name was minted in the ribbon. Place and date of manufacture were minted on the turret belt. Lafet sample XI year compared with the carriage Gribovalya had more straight bed with rounded-bent ends of the trunk. The iron wheel axle was built into the wooden beam. The screw mechanism of vertical guidance, like most metal frames and parts, was from the Griboval system. The wooden parts of the carriage were painted in olive green color, and the metal parts - in black. A new charger box was not inserted between the bed frames, but was installed on the front.
The rate of fire of the gun was 2-4 rounds per minute. The maximum range is 1500 m. The effective fire distance at the core shooting is 800 m; long grape shot - 500 m; the nearest grape shot is 300 m. The number of servants is 9-11 people. The company of foot artillery had 6 cannons (and 2 howitzers), transported by 4 horses. The cavalry artillery company had 4 cannons (and 2 howitzers), transported by 6 horses.
In 1812, upon accession to Russia, French artillery, among other guns, had about 260 6-F guns. In the battle of Borodino, Napoleon's artillery numbered only about 590 guns. Almost half (275) consisted of 6-guns, of which, probably, 180 were directly French 6-f guns of the XI-year system. In 1817 among the 874 trophy guns of various European countries, brought to Moscow, there were 195 French 6-pound cannons.

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